数字证书备忘录

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ca: certification authority
pem: privacy enhanced mail, "begin"+base64+"end"
der: distinguished encoding rules, binary
crt: certificate
cer: certificate
csr: certificate signing request
pkcs: public key cryptography standard
ietf: internet engineering task force
pkcs#12/pfx/p12: file format encoding private keys, certificates and etc, rfc7292
pkcs#7: cryptographic message syntex standard
pkcs#10/p10: certification request syntax specification, rfc2986
x.509: public key certificates format standard
ber: basic encoding rules
per: packed encoding rules
crl: certificate revocation list

refer to:
http://www.360doc.com/content/15/0520/10/21412_471902987.shtml
https://baike.baidu.com/item/BER/19940289?fr=aladdin
https://blog.csdn.net/mao834099514/article/details/109074661
https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/rfc7292